Flame Bat

The wind blows the flame and the flame takes on different shapes. Using ISO and shutter speed to control the exposure, a simple torch flame turns in to an artistic statement. For some reason this shape reminds me of Batman. Can you see it?

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Flame Bat

Flame Bat

Flame ON!

A couple of years ago I took some video of a torch flame. I was disappointed, I thought the close up video would yield interesting patterns yet I couldn’t think of what to do with the video. It didn’t captivate me. Then I had an “aha” moment and got the tripod and the still camera and experimented with shutter speeds. I like this one the best and plan to do some more with two flames.This one reminds me of Johnny Flame and the Fantastic Four…FLAME ON!

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Flame ON!

Flame ON!

Blowing in the Wind

I was out taking pictures of fall foliage and saw the reflections of the trees in the pond. I thought about Monet and wanted to do something that was homage to his style. The first image I took had extreme depth of field and the leaves in the pond were as sharp as the rocks. The result was a pretty but cluttered image and not at all Monet like. I then experimented with depth of field but to no avail. I could get the leaf reflection to be less sharp but then some of the rocks and the background would be unsharp and destroy the eye-flow. So I used mother nature and waited for the wind. I used f-32 and a slow shutter speed so the reflections become blurred through movement. Maybe not as good as Monet but a worthy salute anyhow. You can purchase a print of this image on my commercial taller by clicking here.

Blowing in the Wind

Panning Running Deer

Most still photographers don’t think about panning very much. Panning is commonly used in cinematography but in still photography will cause motion blur. Sometimes motion blur can make an image work by giving the illusion of motion. If you place the camera on a tripod and pan with the action during a slow shutter speed you can still create blurred motion but through panning make the subject blur less. This was shot at an exposure of 1 second and the camera was panned with the action during exposure. The panning causes the background to blur but by panning with the action the deer are not blurred as much making them stand out. You can see more of my nature images at my gallery by clicking here

Running Deer

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Controlling Object Movement During Exposure

Students sometimes ask why are my pictures blurry? It is really simple, either the camera moved or the object (subject) moved. There maybe times that you want an image to be blurry to express motion. This image of a running doe and fawn was taken on a tripod and the tripod was panned during exposure to add a sense of movement to the image. In most case though, you want to freeze the action of an image to define the ultimate moment of the scene. There are a number of reasons that images are blurry but the most important factor is the movement of the camera during exposure. If the camera moves, the image will blur. I know that most of like to think we are as steady as a rock, but we aren’t.

Deer and Fawn

When shooting with a hand held camera, try leaning against a rail, building or tree to steady your body during exposure. It is actually more difficult to steady the camera when holding it at arms length and using the screen of a digital camera. It is easier to steady yourself while looking through the viewfinder during exposure. The exposure of an image is caused by light, shutter speed and aperture. Aperture is controlled through iris, the smaller the iris the less light strikes the sensor. However, smaller apertures provide an increased depth of field. Make your decision about aperture first. Shutter speed controls the amount of time the shutter is open and letting light strike the sensor. The faster the shutter speeds, the faster the action you can freeze. When photographing sports, you should have a shutter speed of 1/500th of a second minimum. Faster is better for freezing action. Adjust the ISO sensitivity so you can achieve the faster the shutter speeds.

Shutter Speed Controller

Use a tripod whenever you can. Get to know your tripod, have a relationship with it. I believe a serious photographer needs two tripods. A large sturdy tripod used for scenic views and portraits at the best ISO sensitivity to capture the detail. This may require a slow shutter speed and small aperture and even the use of a cable release to make sure you have no camera movement. The second tripod is a mini tripod that you can pack up in your camera bag. Sometimes I just can’t carry a big tripod with me.

Mini Tripod

Take the time to know your lenses. Longer focal length lens are great for sports but very heavy. I can steady a 200mm lens at a shutter speed of 1/500th of a second. The more zoomed in you are to your subject, the more difficult it is to steady the camera. Larger lenses have image stabilization systems but they can be very expensive.

Test your own ability at each different shutter speed. Take hand held pictures of an object that doesn’t move. Take a picture at each shutter speed with each lens. Review the images and see which ones are blurry. This will give you a personal guideline of when you need to get out the tripod. Blurred motion can be great way to photograph moving objects but only if you can control it. Take the time to learn your own limitations so you can make creative decisions of when to use slow shutter speeds with bodies in motion.

Controlling Camera Exposure

Today’s modern digital cameras are small wonders. They automatically control focus, sensitivity, exposure, flash lighting and in some cases even try to provide composition automation. Anybody can take perfect exposures at any time and some people never take their cameras of automatic settings. They may even call themselves “Photographers” without having a clue on how to adjust camera exposures. Don’t get me wrong, there is nothing wrong with using automatic settings. However, if you are a “photographer” you want to consider things like motion, depth of field and resolution when composing your pictures. To do that, you need to have some idea about how to manually adjust camera exposures to get the image you want. In this article, we will outline the three basic exposure controls; aperture, shutter speed and sensitivity (ISO) settings. Hopefully, it will help you think about planning your images more during capture and be less afraid to use manual settings. To see my commercial images for sale, just click here.

The first adjustment to consider is aperture. The aperture is the “hole” in the lens created by the lens iris. It mimics the eye in that your iris gets smaller when there is more “light” present. If the iris opening is smaller less light will strike the sensor. In the picture, the bottom lens has the smaller opening. The size of the iris is controlled by adjusting the F-stop. The larger the F-Stop number, the smaller the iris. The smaller the F-stop number will have a larger iris opening. F-stops are logarithmic in nature and each stop will either halve or double the amount of light. In automatic mode, the camera controls the iris, shutter speed and ISO sensitivity. Most digital Single Lens Reflex cameras (DSLR) have semi automatic mode where you can select the F-stop and it will automatically select shutter speed and ISO. Here is why you should care. A smaller the F-stop opening will produce a greater the depth of field. If you want to have the foreground and background in sharp focus you need to have a smaller iris opening or higher F-stop number. This is a decision a photographer needs to make. If I am taking a picture of a flower and I want it to stand out against the background of the trees I will want to use a more open iris to have a narrow depth of field and only have the flower in focus. In most scenic views you want to have maximum depth of field and it is rare that an automatic setting will allow this to happen.

Lens Aperture

The next thing to consider is shutter speed. The shutter speed controls the amount of time the shutter is open to allow light to strike the sensor. The smaller number will let less light in to strike the sensor. Like F-stop this is a logarithmic arrangement. A shutter speed of 1/250th of a second will let light strike the films twice as long as 1/500th of a second. Why is this important? The faster shutter speeds will freeze the action more than a slower shutter speed. This picture was shot at 1/500th of a second to freeze the action of the batter and ball. The faster the action, the harder it is to freeze. To freeze a race car, I might need a shutter speed of 1/1000th of a second or faster.

Freezing the Motion

Sometimes you may not want to freeze the action. This image was photographed at 2 seconds so the shutter was open for two seconds. It was also shot on a tripod and the camera was panned with the image to semi –freeze the image of the deer and fawn. Shutter speed is another creative decision. It is impossible to take a picture like this with automatic settings. As with aperture, most DSLR cameras have a shutter priority setting where you select the shutter speed and the camera will adjust the ISO and Aperture to ensure correct exposure.

Creating Motion Blur

Finally, you need to consider sensor sensitivity. In the old days we used different films with different sensitivities. ISO refers to International Standards Association which sets standards on a lot of things including film sensitivity. This image was shot on film at an ISO of 1600 with no flash. ISO can be adjusted on all digital cameras. Point and shoot cameras may just offer a setting of HIGH ISO and LOW ISO. DSLR cameras use the same numbers we used with film. If the number is lower (100) it will have a finer resolution and “grain” but less sensitivity to light. The higher number will have a higher sensitivity to light. This is also in a logarithmic relationship. You may want to use a higher ISO where you can not use a flash (like this Grateful Dead concert) and still want to be able to take pictures. You may also want to use a lower ISO if you are taking a scenic view on a tripod where you can control all three elements so that you can get the best reproduction possible. There, that’s not so scary is it? So next time you get ready to take some pictures think about if you want to use the automatic settings or if you want to change from a picture taker to a photographer and begin to control your environment.

Setting The ISO Sensitivity